Diagnosis, staging and treatment of varicose veins in the legs

Many people do not take the first signs of varicose veins seriously, thinking that it is just a superficial flaw. In fact, this is not the case. The disease is complex and complex, and it can significantly worsen a person's overall health and cause dangerous consequences.

In addition, it has a negative impact on the health, performance and appearance of patients. Therefore, early diagnosis and proper treatment will help prevent the development of the disease and protect the body from the many negative effects of varicose veins.

Causes and symptoms of varicose veins

Causes and symptoms of varicose veins in the legs

One of the main reasons for the formation of varicose veins is considered by most researchers to be hereditary. If there are cases of varicose veins in the family, it can be said that the risk of family members is much higher.

The next most common condition is an increase in the load on the legs, causing damage to blood flow and venous valves. Risks faced by people who are overweight, sedentary lifestyle, sedentary work or spend a lot of time walking. Smokers, people who suffer from hormonal and endocrine disorders, blood diseases, and overwork are also at risk for this disease.

In order to determine the cause of the disease, timely diagnosis of varicose veins in the legs is very important. People with a family history, even if they have no signs, should be checked regularly. If symptoms occur, it should be done as soon as possible.

Like other diseases, early "caught" varicose veins can be treated more effectively.

The patient tries to prevent the rapid development of the disease and the appearance of extremely ugly and painful nodules in the limbs.

The signs of varicose veins may be as follows:

  • The heaviness of the legs will increase significantly with a little effort, but it may also appear in a completely calm state.
  • Swelling of the calves, ankles and insteps.
  • Leg soreness, manifested by dull pain, cramps, and the sensation of tissue "cracking" and burning from the inside, especially after exertion.
  • The appearance of thrombophlebitis is an inflammatory process in the blood vessel wall full of blood clots.

As the disease progresses, blood vessel walls become wider, thinner and form large varicose veins. They can be located in different locations (hemorrhoids are a special form of varicose veins), but they are particularly noticeable and painful in the lower extremities. If the disease starts, the patient will have difficulty walking, continue to have pain, deteriorate health, and decrease work ability.

Without treatment or the wrong choice, varicose veins may have extremely adverse effects on health and lead to many dangerous complications.

Disease stages

At different stages of disease development, blood outflow caused by varicose veins

The symptoms of varicose veins depend on the stage of the disease.

According to international standards, it is customary to consider the 6 stages of the disease:

  • Stage 0-At the beginning of the disease, the patient himself may not even suspect that he is sick. No external manifestations are observed, but a person will regularly complain of leg pain and heaviness, cramps and swelling, this is the night after a little effort. Even a thorough examination may not detect the signs of the disease, but you can expect their performance at any time.
  • Stage 1-In this stage, in addition to the main complaint of the patient, spider veins or even web-like veins appeared on the legs. Seeking a doctor's comprehensive diagnosis and starting treatment can prevent the development of all-out diseases and maintain the beauty and health of the legs.
  • Stage 2-It is considered actual varicose veins. During this period, a complete "set of" signs was observed-from the patient's main complaint to the enlargement of veins and the formation of nodules under the skin of the extremities. After fatigue, walking with heels or sitting still for a long time, symptoms and external manifestations will increase significantly.
  • Third stage-The patient’s condition worsens due to edema and pre-existing symptoms. Usually, after a night of rest, it disappears, but at night, the patient's legs become very swollen and sore. Swelling leads to stagnation of nutrients, skin darkening, swelling and soreness. The inflammatory process gradually develops from a small area to a large area of destruction. When infection occurs, erysipelas is accompanied by exudative superficial lesions, which is difficult to cure. White areas of atrophy appear on the skin, which may later become trophic ulcers.
  • Fourth stage-Due to the emergence of trophic ulcers, the patient's condition is complicated. So far, these trophic ulcers have been successfully cured.
  • Stage 5-An incurable trophic ulcer. The overall condition of the patient is not ideal.

A correct diagnosis of varicose veins in the legs will not only help identify the disease itself, but also help determine the stage of the disease. The smaller it is, the easier it is to treat, and the faster it can achieve optimal results.

Possible complications

Possible complications of deep varicose veins in the legs

Late varicose veins can be complicated by eczema and thrombophlebitis.

If the disease is not treated or improperly used, it may be complicated by the following problems:

  1. Nutritional ulcers. They are painful, unsightly, can become severely inflamed and difficult to treat. If the cause cannot be eliminated, you can open it again and again.
  2. An acute form of superficial vein thrombophlebitis.
  3. Thrombosis.
  4. Bleeding from a nodule formed by the thin blood vessels of a varicose vein. They come from a ruptured blood vessel wall and cause heavy bleeding. If the treatment is not stopped in time, the blood loss can be very serious and even lead to death.
  5. Thromboembolism is the transfer of thrombus through the bloodstream to another place that may cause thrombosis. If the embolism enters a large blood vessel (such as the pulmonary artery), the embolism can cause serious problems or death.
  6. Milky white or blue puffiness. These conditions indicate that various vascular diseases cause severe pain, leading to the development of trophic ulcers, and sometimes due to severe violations of nutrition, which may be the beginning of tissue death. In particularly severe cases, this can lead to amputation.

Diagnosis method

Methods of diagnosing varicose veins in the legs

The main diagnosis of varicose veins in the legs is Doppler ultrasound. In this way, doctors can not only detect vein dilation, but also assess the condition of deep vein and superficial vein valves, and determine whether there are blood clots or other formations in the vascular cavity.

The procedure is painless for the patient. It is carried out in the supine or prone position. Sometimes the doctor asks the patient to perform other examinations while standing to show the lesions that are not visible in other positions.

No investigation is required.

In addition, other types of examinations and tests can be assigned to patients. The blood test is very important. It shows the state of the fluid and its tendency to increase thrombosis.

The specificity of treatment

Treatment rules and methods for leg varicose veins

After the diagnosis of varicose veins in the legs, the doctor will choose the appropriate treatment according to the stage of the disease.

The effects on all types of diseases can be divided into the following categories:

  1. Be conservative.
  2. Surgery.

The latter method is used when the status has been very neglected and a positive effect cannot be obtained through conservative methods. In this case, surgical removal of the affected area of the vein is required. After the intervention, it is necessary to wear special compression underwear immediately. Usually, within a day after the operation, the patient is allowed to go home.

If the disease is detected in time, conservative methods can be used. It includes medication, sclerotherapy or laser coagulation and compression.

The choice of medication depends on many reasons, so the attending physician will select the medication individually for each patient.

The most common drugs include anticoagulants, substances that help thin the blood and prevent blood clots, and anti-inflammatory drugs used to treat phlebitis and stop its spread.

Sclerotherapy is a method of injecting a special substance into the blood vessel, which makes the blood vessel walls stick together. Scars are formed, diseased blood vessels "close" from the blood circulation, and die and dissolve over time. On the surface of the body, there are no traces of the previous blue blood vessels or "stars". The process is very fast and does not require anesthesia.

If larger blood vessels need to be removed, laser coagulation is used. For him, under local anesthesia, a special light guide is inserted into the vein, and the light guide conducts the laser beam. He literally sealed the blood vessel and condensed the blood in it. As a result, it dies in the same way as smaller blood vessels during the hardening process.

The wearing of pressure underwear is prescribed by the doctor, and the doctor can also choose the type and category of the product. The use of such tools can also be preventive. This requires special (not medicinal! ) socks. They show people at risk, those who spend a lot of time walking or sitting still.

Prevention

Active lifestyle to prevent varicose veins in the legs

An active and healthy lifestyle is the best way to prevent varicose veins.

The development of varicose veins can be prevented if the following suggestions are followed:

  1. Lose weight. The presence of obesity or overweight contributes to the development of many diseases, including varicose veins.
  2. Remove excessive load on the veins, including the load caused by strenuous exercise. The main "proocateurs" are weightlifting, bodybuilding, and tennis.
  3. Stop wearing uncomfortable shoes with high heels every day. Should only be used on special occasions, the lower heel, more stable shoes are suitable for daily wear.
  4. Refuse to use stockings and underwear with elastic bands that compress blood vessels. Things with rubber bands are particularly dangerous.
  5. Reject long hot baths, baths and saunas, and avoid direct sunlight.
  6. Smoking may be one of the factors that cause the circulatory system to work disorder, so smoking should also be avoided.

Moderate exercise, regular walks, standing or sitting, walking, or interrupting work while doing exercise will never familiarize you with this dangerous and unpleasant disease-varicose veins.

04.03.2021