Early symptoms of varicose veins in the legs
Varicose veins is a serious disease with many unpleasant consequences: itching and discomfort, fatigue and unpleasant appearance of the legs, thrombophlebitis. Approximately 20% of the population on our planet faces this disease. This disease requires careful and long-term treatment, so treatment should be started as soon as the patient discovers the first signs of varicose veins in the legs. This will help avoid surgery and return the leg to its previous appearance without pain.
Causes of varicose veins
Varicose veins are classified as a genetic disease. But in some cases, the disease may not progress. A person's lifestyle and professional activities can make the vein condition worse. The risk group includes those whose activities involve regular weight lifting and prolonged standing or sitting. People who are overweight and pregnant women are also susceptible to varicose veins. Other common reasons:
- Endocrine system disorders, hormonal disorders (adolescence, pregnancy, menopause);
- Mechanical disorders in blood flow (blood clots and tumors);
- Stress and frequent nervousness, bad habits;
- The formation of arteriovenous fistulas;
- Often wear uncomfortable shoes, tight-fitting stockings and socks, which will slow down the process of blood flow;
- Frequent constipation and excessive exertion during defecation;
- Sedentary lifestyle.
If you don't want to miss the first symptoms of varicose veins, please see a phlebologist once a year. During pregnancy, women need to be checked by experts at least twice.
Symptoms of the disease
This disease is dangerous because it is difficult to diagnose at an early stage. The first signs of varicose veins on the legs resemble usual fatigue, which is common among residents of large cities. They are accompanied by the following symptoms:
- Vein pain and burning sensation;
- Feeling of heaviness and swelling in the legs;
- Night cramps;
- Dilated and translucent veins appear through the skin, which can be felt on palpation (most commonly in the popliteal fossa and the back of the leg);
- The skin of the calf darkens and thickens.
All the above signs may worsen over time, so immediate treatment is required. If neglected, varicose veins will spread to the entire surface of the legs and even the feet. In this case, the skin will appear bluish and dry, with erythema and trophic ulcers. In complex stages, body temperature rises. At night, bleeding may occur due to a ruptured lymph node.
Dividing varicose veins into several stages is quite arbitrary and based on specific symptoms. Varicose veins are divided into the following stages:
- Early days. Varicose veins on the legs started slowly and showed no obvious signs. Only during consultation with a phlebologist is it possible to determine the existence of the disease at this stage. Patients are concerned about rapid fatigue, swelling, itching of the legs and a feeling of fullness in the calf area. The urge to massage the feet frequently at the end of the day can also be a worrying symptom.
- The first level. The signs of varicose veins become more intense, but with timely treatment, you can get rid of them. The patient began to notice that the tiredness and itching at night did not disappear even in the morning. When wearing shoes, the swelling of the legs caused discomfort, and the burning sensation spread to the upper leg. It is usually difficult for a person to fall asleep, and the first thought of taking painkillers occurs.
- The second degree. Usually, varicose veins in the legs are diagnosed at this stage. Obvious symptoms of the disease appear: veins are deformed, dense and bulging, darker in color, nodules and venous networks appear. All of this is accompanied by endless pain and fatigue. Need to seek expert help.
- Three degrees. The skin on the legs becomes denser and blue, with vein streaks clearly visible. In the eyes of the patient, the venous nodes may rupture when the slightest pressure is applied to them. The formation of varicose ulcers is possible. The patient has difficulty walking, and every movement will make him feel very painful.
If you have any suspicious symptoms, see a phlebologist immediately. Neglecting treatment can lead to serious consequences.
These are very painful diseases that require serious and long-term treatment. They have the following characteristics:
- Acute thrombophlebitis of superficial veins;
- Trophic ulcer;
- Venous thrombosis.
Bleeding during venous dilation of the lower extremities also indicates the development of complications.
Chronic venous insufficiency
The development of varicose veins has gone through four main stages (from small changes in hemodynamics to inflammation of the deepest venous anastomosis):
- Phase zero: No clinical symptoms. There may be slight swelling of the legs.
- The first stage: the blood vessels are obviously dilated, but there is no nutritional disorder.
- The second stage: the veins swell and form nodules, skin pigmentation, eczema, ulcers. During ultrasound examination, vascular valve insufficiency can be diagnosed.
- The third stage: All the above symptoms are combined with persistent nutritional disorders. Surgery is required at this stage.
Inflammation of leg veins has the following symptoms: itching and pain, night cramps, swelling, and ulcers. When using elastic compression and walking slowly, the pain will increase. A person feels discomfort, anxiety and emotional stress during exercise. The efficiency level drops.
This disease is the result of decompensation of venous outflow. He is characterized by the following symptoms:
- Slow development speed;
- The blood vessel wall becomes more penetrating, causing the dermis to darken and pigmentation;
- A painted pale seal is formed, which indicates the beginning of the ulcer process.
The slightest injury can cause ulcers to form. If treated in time, bruises from varicose veins on the legs are easily absorbed. But in the absence of treatment, they can become the cause of soft tissue inflammation, leading to secondary infections and purulent complications.
Use antibacterial drugs and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for treatment. The patient was assigned to bed rest for 2 weeks. Clean the lesion with antiseptic and cover it with gauze bandage. For the dressing, use a water-soluble osmotic active ointment.
In the formation of granulation tissue, laser and ultraviolet radiation are prescribed. During the formation of connective tissue components, it is recommended to wear elastic stockings. After the ulcer is completely closed, a complicated operation is performed.
The manifestations of varicose veins can cause blood clots. This disease is dangerous because it often leads to accidental death. A thrombus is blocking the arterial bed. As a result, the blood supply to the lung tissue is interrupted. The main symptoms of thromboembolism include:
- Pain in the breastbone;
- Significant increase in body temperature;
- Crash attack
- Severe cough accompanied by wet wheezing;
- Difficulty breathing.
Treatment with drugs (thrombolytic anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents) and surgery (pulmonary embolectomy).
The first step in recovery
The symptoms of varicose veins cannot be masked and ignored. But before starting treatment, you need to seek medical help. The course of treatment depends on the results of the examination. In the early stages of varicose veins, it is recommended:
- Conduct therapeutic massage courses;
- Use creams to increase the elasticity of the leg skin and pain relief ointments;
- Application compression;
- Exercise therapy
- Walk often.
Conservative treatments for varicose veins include the use of varicose veins, anti-inflammatory drugs, strengthening drugs, analgesics, heart disease drugs, and anticonvulsants.
For the treatment of advanced varicose veins, sclerotherapy, ozone therapy and compression therapy are used. In the most severe cases, doctors will resort to surgical intervention (laser coagulation, phlebectomy, sclerotherapy, radiofrequency coagulation).
A new way of life
In order to increase the level of effectiveness of treatment, it is necessary to adjust the lifestyle. The beginning of a new healthy life should be accompanied by:
- Decrease in physical activity;
- Swimming lessons;
- Wearing compression stockings;
- Proper nutrition and weight control;
- Refuse to drink and smoke.
Women prone to varicose veins should refuse high heels. The best heel height is 4 cm. Shoes should be wide enough and comfortable.
Preventing varicose veins means following a set of rules. People at risk and prone to disease need:
- Observe reasonable activities: work and rest should be alternated throughout the day.
- Change your body posture regularly when sitting for a long time, and abandon the cross-legged posture.
- Don't wear tight shoes and high heels, tight pants and stockings.
- Adhere to a healthy diet to avoid constipation.
- Reject bad habits.
- Do sports and gymnastics, ride a bicycle.
- Do not abuse hot baths, bathing and sunbathing.
At the next examination, the phlebologist may prescribe drugs to strengthen the vein walls.